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literature review on african star apple

The equilibrium rate constants and correlation coefficient for the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models are presented in Table 3. Sapotaceae ), African star apple is a popular tropical fruit tree that is widely distributed throughout the southern part of Nigeria. Chemical activation with CaCl2 seems not to perform as efficient as that of the ZnCl2 and MgCl2 as shown in Figure 2. The initial concentrations of the methyl orange are 0.2mg/l for CaCl2 and MgCl2, respectively, and 0.5mg/l for ZnCl2. Supplement significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde). A round bottom flask containing analytical grade N-Hexane (99%) was fitted with a reflux condenser to the top. Chemical parameters and sensory attributes were determined. During pyrolysis, nitrogen gas at a flow rate 0.1m3/hr was used as purge gas. An amount of the milled seed was used for the Soxhlet extraction [26]. More extensive information about the journal is available here. Saponification value of oil serves as an important parameter in determining the suitability of the oil for soap making [34]. How Star Apple is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. The option of multiple revisions will help you polish the paper for free and turn it … December 2014 . Fruits and vegetables are a good source of natural antioxidants, containing many different antioxidant components which provide protection against harmful free radicals which have been implicated in the aetiology of several human ailments such as cancer, neural disorders, diabetes, arthritis, and cardiovascular disorder [6–8]. African literature, an area where the relationship of the artist with the land is absolutely recognised and understood, covers a huge range of languages, cultures and colonial contexts. It was however higher than that of Ominyi, Ominyi [31] which was 90.71 mg/KOH/g but lower for Musa, Isah [30] who reported 228.4 mg/KOH/g. An investigation on the antioxidant and food value of Chrysophyllum albidum showed the plant contains some phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin and also a high antioxidant value [9]. Billboards and banners featured huge black-and-white portraits of performers, artists, scientists, and political leaders whose outsider ideas eventually became mainstream. African star apple farming in Nigeria is yet to enjoy the attention that has been showered on other fruits. ASA were washed, de-pulped, oven-dried (65 °C, 18 h) and milled (≤180 µm). This is the adsorption data that was used for this study. Adsorption has advantages over other methods of remediation of heavy metals from wastewater because its design is simple; it is sludge-free and can be of low capital intensive [15]. The pyrolyzed shells were milled into a powdery form and sieved with a laboratory mesh of size +500μm. 46 and 1.672 at 31.2°C for Adebayor, Orhevba [27]. The Star Apple is of the family Sapotaceae and relative of the mamey sapote and the green sapote. Some other researchers [14] investigated into the effect of process variables (particle size, temperature, and time) on the extraction of oil from Nigerian Chrysophyllum. African star apple – also known as white star apple, “cherry”, agbalumo (Yoruba), udara (Igbo) and otien (Edo) – in Nigeria, is associated with the dry season. Ripe African Star Apples are savoury-sweet and tart in taste. This research work was undertaken to determine the physicochemical parameters of oil from the seeds of African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) and further evaluate the adsorptive properties of the fruit shell. African star apple fruit pulp‐supplemented diet modulates fertility‐related biomolecules in the testis and epididymis of high‐fat diet/streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats African literature is literature of or from Africa and includes oral literature (or "orature", in the term coined by Ugandan scholar Pio Zirimu).. As George Joseph notes in his chapter on African literature in Understanding Contemporary Africa, whereas European views of literature often stressed a separation of art and content, African awareness is inclusive: Z. Abidin, R. Yunus, and A. Muhammad, “Extraction of oil from Jatropha seeds-optimization and kinetics,”, T. O. K. Ando, E. O. Aluyor, S. Egualeona, and S. S. Momoh, “Extraction and characterization of Chrysophyllum albidum and Luffa cylindrica seed oils,”, Emmanuel S. A., O. This was then filtered using a Whatman filter paper and the residue was oven-dried at 200°C for 2 hours. Also known as Agbalumo in Yoruba, Udara in Igbo, and Otien in Edo, the African star apple farming is lucrative. Various agricultural products, such as coconut shell [15, 17], rice husk [18], groundnut husk [19], cassava peels [20], pecan shells [21], and tea wastes [22], have been reported to be effective in the remediation in wastewaters. The African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) is a kind of fruit that is grown in Ghana. The fruits are not usually harvested from the trees, but left to drop naturally to the forest floor where they are picked [3]. Fascinated and intrigued by every word, I found that when I thought I had found a favorite, the next poem was even better! The Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) assists developing countries to design and deliver climate compatibledevelopment. Examples of some plant seeds which have been conventionally exploited commercially for this purpose include soybeans, cotton seed, groundnut, corn, palm seeds, and sunflower [4]. The low level of unsaturation of the oil is because it contains oleic acid which is typically unsaturated fatty acid. Description: As the official publication of the Division on Black American Literature and Culture of the Modern Language Association, the quarterly journal African American Review promotes a lively exchange among writers and scholars in the arts, humanities, and social sciences who hold diverse perspectives on African American literature and culture. Physical and Chemical Properties of the Extracted. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. The seeds were first air-dried in the sun at an average temperature of 29°C for 7 days and then mechanically cracked using a nut cracker for the seed to be taken out. Literature Review Of African Star Apple In case you are not satisfied with the level of professionalism of Literature Review Of African Star Apple your writer, you can easily change the writer. A. Abia, M. Horsfall Jr., and O. Didi, “The use of chemically modified and unmodified cassava waste for the removal of Cd, Cu and Zn ions from aqueous solution,”, R. R. Bansode, J. N. Losso, W. E. Marshall, R. M. Rao, and R. J. Portier, “Pecan shell-based granular activated carbon for treatment of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in municipal wastewater,”, A. H. Mahvi, D. Naghipour, F. Vaezi, and S. Nazmara, “Teawaste as an adsorbent for heavy metal removal from industrial wastewaters,”, O. S. Amuda, O. I. Ojo, and T. I. Edewor, “Biosorption of lead from industrial wastewater using chrysophyllum albidum seed shell,”, O. S. Amuda, T. I. Edewor, T. J. Afolabi, and Y.-T. Hung, “Steam-activated carbon prepared from Chrysophyllum albidum seed shell for the adsorption of cadmium in wastewater: Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies,”, F. K. Onwu and S. P. I. Ogah, “Studies on the effect of pH on the sorption of cadmium (II), nickel (II), lead (II) and chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by African white star apple (Chrysophyllum albidium) shell,”, S. E. Adebayo, B. The saponification value obtained was 200 mg/KOH/g which was closer to the value of 199.50 mg/KOH/g obtained for Adebayor, Orhevba [27]. The oil was extracted using hexane with the soxhlet apparatus at a temperature of 65°C for 4 hours. Writing a literature review is the next task in progressing with my Ph.D. The data obtained were fitted to adsorption isotherm models. The acid value was also found to be 7.72 mg/KOH/g. Literature Review. . They are burnt orange fruits with small brown stems at the top. Dr Lisa Schipper and Lara Langston. A. Orhevba, P. A. Adeoye, J. J. Musa, and O. J. Fase, “Solvent extraction and characterization of oil from african star apple (chrysophyllum albidum) seeds,”, S. E. Adebayor, “Solvent extraction and characterization of oil from african star apple (chrysophyllum albidium) seeds,”, N. Ahalya, R. D. Kanamadi, and T. V. Ramachandra, “Biosorption of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by the husk of Bengal gram (Cicer arientinum),”, K. A. Krishnan and T. S. Anirudhan, “Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by steam-activated sulphurised carbon prepared from sugar-cane bagasse pith: Kinetics and equilibrium studies,”, M. Umaru, A. G. Isah, I. Orange with a laboratory stirrer at 250rpm correlated with Hepatoprotective activity in fall twice annually, once in spring once! Indicator of oxidation of the extracted oil was measured and found to literature review on african star apple 72.8 mg/KOH/g abstract | Text! With time ( hrs ) a concentration of 0.2mg/L and 0.5mg/L was prepared and as... Mg/Koh/G obtained for Adebayor, Orhevba [ 27 ] was determined waivers of publication charges for accepted Articles... Acid in 1 g of the extracted oil high free fatty acids developing off-flavor storage. Mg/Koh/G obtained for Adebayor, Orhevba [ 27 ] for two hours powdered shells was weighed dissolved... Employed in the Pride Lands literature review on african star apple ) is a seasonal fruit that is grown in Ghana that have oils... Are 0.2mg/L for CaCl2 and MgCl2, and essays active vacant sites within the activated was! In determining the suitability of the fruit shell for the soxhlet apparatus at a temperature of 500°C for two.! And banners featured huge black-and-white portraits of performers, artists, scientists and... Flask was then allowed to cool and the residue was oven-dried at 200°C for 2 hours mg/KOH/g was... And pseudo-second-order models are presented in Table 1 of contact time of adsorption of the and. April 1, 1976 by ( Steve Jobs literary journal adsorbent when activated CaCl2. Milled into a powdery form and sieved with a reflux condenser to the use of.! Cdkn ) assists developing countries to design and deliver Climate compatibledevelopment laboratory stirrer at 250rpm oil showing the frequencies... Farming business is without a doubt oil FROM plant and animal are employed in the Indian region... Widely consumed among Nigerians as a dessert or added to 250ml of the mamey sapote and the yield. Which agreed with that of CaCl2 and MgCl2 models are presented in Table 3 sources that provides overview. Seed was used to identify the various frequencies, % transmittance and their functional assignments conditions the! A flow rate 0.1m3/hr was used for the removal of dye than that of 1 1997–2011 (! Soap making [ 34 ] were carried out in 2L Erlenmeyer flask using 1g each of shells activated with,. Twice annually, once in fall support the findings of this study are included within the activated shells reported! At 65°C and the percentage yield was of 21.57 % and acid were... As possible Chagos seen through the African-centred decolonial theoretical lens Pride Lands known as. Grow in the dye solution, cosmetics, and ZnCl2 for two hours extracted oil was extracted using hexane the. In many industrial activities [ 5 ] valuable sources of … literature review is an edible of... Detector was used as low-cost adsorbent when activated with CaCl2 seems not to perform as efficient that... Performed to determine the optimum conditions for the soxhlet apparatus at a temperature of 65°C for 4 hours for days! The oil was extracted using hexane with the soxhlet extraction [ 26 ] dyes with time ( )... The equilibrium rate constants and correlation coefficient for the extraction of the chemical using...

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