A distinction from other reactors is that the moderator here is not cooled down by any coolant. The extensions of the fuel channels penetrate the lower plate and the cover plate and are welded to each. In an RBMK reactor, one of the things that keeps the brakes on is the water that is being heated up by the reaction, as it absorbs the neutrons bouncing around. RBMK is a Soviet-designed nuclear reactor that uses enriched uranium as its fuel. On April 26, 1986, a routine safety test at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine spiraled out of control. It was designed and constructed with several design characteristics that proved dangerously unstable when operated outside their design specifications. Some of the current technology (uranium based fission) use a mixture of U235 and U238 as pellets encased as fuel rods. The core sits on a heavy steel plate, with a 1000 tonne steel cover plate on the top. Registered office: Tower House, 10 Southampton Street, London, WC2E 7HA, United Kingdom, Reuse of World Nuclear Association Content, INSAG-7, The Chernobyl Accident: Updating of INSAG-1. The RBMK reactor has a huge graphite block structure as the Moderator that slows down the neutrons produced by fission. , The blocks are pierced by about 1660 holes where roughly 1600 pressure tubes fit through, with an even distribution of control rods throughout, as seen in Figure 1 (colored squares are control rods).. 75-INSAG-7, 1992, (ISBN: 9201046928). In reactor designs where the moderator and coolant are of different materials, excess steam reduces the cooling of the reactor, but as the moderator remains intact the nuclear chain reaction continues. In the CANDU design, fuel rods are loaded horizontally into the reactor. The power plant was located 15 km northwest of the town of Chernobyl (pop. Did you know that Chernobyl was an RBMK nuclear reactor? good work. The RBMK was a Soviet develloped design - only built in the former Soviet Union. The OPAL reactor uses ordinary ‘light water’ to do a number of things: to cool the reactor, to moderate neutrons (i.e. b o o m . Continue Reading. I dont know. The main differences are in the spacing of the graphite lattice in the core and the incorporation of passive safety systems. Unacceptably large void coefficients were prevented for initial cores by increasing fuel enrichment levels, with the excess reactivity balanced by fixed absorbers. The term 'positive void coefficient' is often associated with RBMK reactors. The Soviet-designed RBMK (reaktor bolshoy moshchnosty kanalny, high-power channel reactor) is a water-cooled reactor with individual fuel channels and using graphite as its moderator. Everything is safe, there are only 3.6 roentgen - … While human error, policy failures, and a lack of knowledge all played a role in the disaster, design flaws in the RBMK reactor are also to blame. Recent announcements by Russia that it will decommission the Leningrad nuclear plant’s No 1 reactor have opened a broader discussion of how Moscow will handle closing similar reactors whose designs defy conventional dismantlement. A number of significant design changes were made after the Chernobyl accident to address these problems. Scram (shut down) rod insertion time cut from 18 to 12 seconds. The steam is then condensed and fed back into the circulating coolant. This caused water in the lower part of the reactor to flash-boil to steam, damaging the reactor and causing the rods to become stuck, and in turn fed into a positive void coefficient, causing more water to boil, and so on and so on until a steam explosion blew the reactor apart.  This controls the rate of fission in the reactor; the further the control rods are inside the core, the more neutrons they absorb and the slower fission occurs. But we know what we need to know This page's sources are incomplete, nonexistent or unreliable. (Some early U.S. reactors at the Hanford Site in Washington state were a similar design with similar flaws, but were fixed in the mid-1960s. One RBMK (Smolensk 3) has been built to these third-generation standards. There are three distinct generations of RBMK reactors having significant differences with respect to their safety design features: In 2006, Rosatom said it was considering operating lifetime extensions and uprating of its operating RBMK reactors. This causes more heat and thus more vapor and more voids to form. The problem with all of these advanced nuclear technolgies is that the effort to eliminate each and every risk gets extraordinary expensive and convoluted to the point where the cost inflates massively. Increasing the ORM from 26-30 rods (in steady state operational mode) to 43-48. In fact, the name RBMK is a Russian acronym for "High-powered channel-type reactor". Additional design changes were being incorporated in the construction of Kursk 5 before it was cancelled. Replacement of the group distribution headers and addition of check valves. 18 of these fuel rods are combined into a cylindrical carriage to form a fuel assembly. Most of the time was spent on researching the reactor type and the underlying physics. The most significant difference between the RBMK nuclear plant design and most of the world's nuclear power plants is the RBMK's lack of a massive steel and concrete containment structure as the final barrier against large releases of radiation in an accident. Seen in Figure 3, the containment structure is not as sound as those seen in more modern nuclear power plants. instrumentation and control) and are called "special channels". its a positive feedback loop. , The RBMK is famous as it was the ill-fated reactor involved in the Chernobyl disaster. Heavy water nuclear reactors and light water nuclear reactors differ in how they create and manage the complex physics of nuclear fission, or atom-splitting, which produces the energy and heat that creates steam—which then drives the generators. Most of the openings contain fuel channels. Cool light water flows through it which absorbs heat from the fuel assembly. How many people died as an immediate result of the accident? These measures consist of: There are currently nine operating RBMKs, all of which are in Russia. It would also reflect badly on the director of the Kurchatov institude if the reactor he had overseen were found to have a potentially fatal flaw. The additional heat resulting from the increase in power raised the temperature in the cooling circuit and more steam was produced. The additional absorbers require the use of higher fuel enrichment to compensate for the increased neutron absorption. Light Water Graphite-Moderated Reactors (RBMK) are Soviet designs and while similar to BWRs, each fuel assembly has an individual pipe allowing the coolant (water) to flow around the fuel. The four first-generation units are Leningrad 1&2 (both now shutdown), and Kursk 1&2. It is also known as the light water graphite reactor (LWGR). The reactor core is located in a reinforced concrete lined cavity that acts as a radiation shield. The RBMK-1000 is a Soviet-designed and built graphite moderated pressure tube type reactor, using slightly enriched (2% U-235) uranium dioxide fuel. A nuclear reactor is driven by the splitting of atoms, a process called fission, where a particle (a ‘neutron’) is fired at an atom, which then fissions into two smaller atoms and some additional neutrons. In this video, you can see how does the nuclear reactor work, and wh.. Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the RBMK-1000 type. Typical Pressurized-Water Reactor. This leads to an increase in the reactivity of the system. These design characteristics will be highlighted in this section, showing its distinction from the other reactor types. An easy answer came in the RBMK reactor. The breeder reactor is a specially designed nuclear reactor that is intended to not only produce power but weapons-grade plutonium as well Chernobyl nuclear disaster scheme. This is the chief concern of U.S. citizens. Nuclear reactors have one job: to split atoms in a controlled reaction and use the released energy to generate electrical power.Over the years, reactors have been viewed as both a miracle and a menace. )Light-water reactors consist of a large pressure vessel containing nuclear … This happens because the water acts as both the coolant and moderator so when there are voids present, there is a correspondingly less amount of moderator which balances or reduces the power output. Lithuania, on the other hand, closed Ignalina 1&2 early as a condition for entry into the European Union. When the power began to increase, even more steam was produced, which in turn led to an increase in power. There are automatic, manual, and emergency control rods which can all be placed into certain depths depending on the conditions inside the core and the goals of operation. If there is a deviation from normal operating parameters (e.g. The use of control rods in the Chernobyl disaster were a key point for the events that occurred. In an RBMK reactor, one of the things that keeps the brakes on is the water that is being heated up by the reaction, as it absorbs the neutrons bouncing around. Improvement of the response efficiency of the emergency protection system. Dogesdsds 22nd October. In the Table below, the 'operating until' dates are the scheduled shutdown for these plants, with 15-year lifetime extensions in some cases. RBMK reactors operated for decades in Russia after the Chernobyl disaster.. Two of these end on end occupy each pressure tube. It is also known as the light water graphite reactor (LWGR). They were primarily used for the making and refining of uranium and plutonium. Following the Chernobyl accident, this 'positive scram' effect was mitigated by retrofitting the control rods so that, with the rods fully retracted, there would not be a region containing water at the bottom of the core. roxana 26th October. Principal characteristics of the reactor RBMK-1000 . In this video, you can see how does the nuclear reactor work, and wh.. There are just people who went to work one evening, working as the system required of them, and the reactor, working as physics required of it. sir_oof53 13th November "tell me, how does an rbmk reactor explode?" Replacement of the fuel channels at all units (except Smolensk 3). In light-water reactors, the fuel and the water is together in a tank, a so called reactor vessel. All nuclear reactors are neither the same in terms of technology nor in use. The result is catastrophe.---To figure out why an RBMK reactor can explode, first we have to understand how an RBMK reactor works. i like it i run it for 2/3 minutes on manual and then it boom. The installation of 80-90 additional fixed absorbers in the core to inhibit operation at low power. Retrofitting of control rods with a design that does not give rise to water columns at the bottom of the channels. After the Chernobyl accident, Soviet safety standards were revised again (OPB-88). In RBMK reactors, an important factor affecting this is the operating reactivity margin. The steam then passes to the Turbine as in the Boiling Water Reactor design. Pellets of slightly-enriched uranium oxide are enclosed in a zircaloy tube 3.65m long, forming a fuel rod. This allows the fuel to cool and causes the light water's temperature to be at 290oC. ing how RBMK reactors work. The efficiency and speed of the emergency protection system was improved by implementing three independent retrofitting operations: One of the most important post-accident changes to the RBMK was the retrofitting of the control rods. However, the dimensions of the rod and displacers were such that, with the rod fully withdrawn, the 4.5 m displacer sat centrally within the fuelled region of the core with 1.25 m of water at either end. Two of these rods are loaded into the pressure tubes.  At this temperature the water is in the form of steam and emerges from the top of the core. The problem with all of these advanced nuclear technolgies is that the effort to eliminate each and every risk gets extraordinary expensive and convoluted to the point where the cost inflates massively. This proved fatal in the Chernobyl accident as the pressure inside of the core blew off the top covering of the core, exposing the radioactive core to the outside world. The initial explosion resulted in the … The cans in the market suddenly stopped having labels. On the night of April 26, 1986, a system test was being run on reactor No. The RBMK-1000 model of reactor is an outdated and flawed design and was one of the largest factors in the reactor 4 incident. as the reactor gets hotter, the cooling water expanded, causing voids in the water. It is a rather unusual design as it uses graphite as its moderator, and was designed for plutonium production—but was also used extensively for electrical generation. Introduction of calculation programs to provide an indication of the value of the operating reactivity margin (ORM. As mentioned prior, light water is used as the coolant and the working fluid. Heavy water nuclear reactors and light water nuclear reactors differ in how they create and manage the complex physics of nuclear fission, or atom-splitting, which produces the energy and heat that creates steam—which then drives the generators. The RBMK reactor was flawed from the beginning, but that's fine. How CANDU Reactors Differ from Light Water Reactors . Two of these end on end occupy each pressure tube. A diagram of the RBMK-1000 model reactor. And yet there are still 10 of the same type of reactor in operation in Russia. How CANDU Reactors Differ from Light Water Reactors . As the disaster showed, the RBMK had some key design flaws. The combination of graphite as a moderator and light water as coolant is unique to this reactor as no other reactors in the world use both. An RBMK reactor cannot explode, after all. The Soviet RBMK does not possess a containment vessel. RBMK net efficiency is around of 31 %. The result is catastrophe.---To figure out why an RBMK reactor can explode, first we have to understand how an RBMK reactor works. Reactors cooled by boiling water will contain a certain amount of steam in the core. The Soviet Union invented and developed the RBMK reactor, and at the time there were 27 in operation, with another 16 pressurized water reactors (PWR) operating throughout the country for a t… a RMBK reactor can explode by hitting a 1mm by 1mm rock while driving at 30 kph according to arma physics you aren't wrong there @Heartc if you want to believe Uranium and other radioactive elements are "harmless" then you can go ahead and tell that to the people who died from radiation poisoning, leukemia/other cancers. The key flaws were mentioned above, and the solutions to each of them are:, Bethel Afework, Jordan Hanania, Kailyn Stenhouse, Jason DonevLast updated: July 21, 2018Get Citation. I don't think it was because they ran out of paper. The steam produced passes to the Steam Separator which separates water from the steam. These units conform to the OPB-82 standards. The combination of graphite moderator and water coolant is found in no other power reactors in the world. INSAG-7, The Chernobyl Accident: Updating of INSAG-1, A report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group, International Atomic Energy Agency, Safety Series No. Characteristics Thermal power 3,200 MW Electrical power 1,000 MW Improvements to the emergency core cooling systems. With the fuel loaded in these strong metal tubes, these pressure tubes are arranged vertically inside the core of the reactor. This reactor, the precursor of the unfortunate Chernobyl RBMK reactors, was cooled by water and moderated using graphite. The void coefficient in the RBMK is positive. How does this reactor work : The RBMK was the culmination of the Soviet nuclear power program to produce a water-cooled power reactor based on their graphite-moderated plutonium production military reactors. This is a major difference: whereas the loss of water in a normal BWR would stop the reaction, in the RBMK, reactor power will increase if water is lost. The year 1954 saw also the launching of the world’s first nuclear-powered submarine, the USS Nautilus (a pressurized water reactor of 10 MWth). 12,500) and just 3 km away from the town of Pripyat (pop. There are just people who went to work one evening, working as the system required of them, and the reactor, working as physics required of it. Some of the neutrons that are released then hit other atoms, causing them to … sir_oof53 13th November "tell me, how does an rbmk reactor explode?" The Soviet-designed RBMK ( reaktor bolshoy moshchnosty kanalny, high-power channel reactor) is a water-cooled reactor with individual fuel channels and using graphite as its moderator. The steam is then condensed and fed back through as coolant. On April 26, 1986, the Number Four RBMK reactor at the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, Ukraine, went out of control during a test at low-power, leading to an explosion and fire that demolished the reactor building and released large amounts of radiation into the atmosphere. They act as a moderator to slow down the neutrons released during fission so that a continuous fission chain reaction can be maintained. We do not yet know how an RBMK reactor explodes. See especially: Annex I of INSAG-7, the Report by a Commission to the USSR State Committee for the Supervision of Safety in Industry and Nuclear Power (SCSSINP); and Annex II of INSAG-7, the Report by Working Group of USSR Experts, Causes and Circumstances of the Accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and Measures to Improve the Safety of Plants with RBMK Reactors (Moscow, 1991), © 2016-2020 World Nuclear Association, registered in England and Wales, number 01215741. ", however during the events of the disaster, only about 6 - 8 control rods were inside of the core.. Some universities have small nuclear reactors to teach students how reactors work. Because water is both a more efficient coolant and a more effective neutron absorber than steam, a change in the proportion of steam bubbles, or 'voids', in the coolant will result in a change in core reactivity. , The Chernobyl disaster proved that the RBMK design had to be addressed. In 2018, they provided 31% of Russia's nuclear-generated electricity. A boiling water reactor heats up the water in the reactor until it boils into steam and spins the turbine. The void coefficient is only one contributor to the overall power coefficient of reactivity, but in RBMK reactors it is the dominant component, reflecting a high degree of dependence of reactivity on the steam content of the core. 4, was a huge 23 feet (7 meters) tall and almost 40 feet (12 meters) wide Reaktor typu RBMK (rusky реактор большой мощности канальный, … The FAEP system was designed so that 24 emergency protection control rods would insert negative reactivity of at least 2ß in under 2.5 seconds. The schematic presentation of it is given in Fig.1. RBMK Technical Overview The reactor core of an RBMK is constructed of closely packed graphite blocks stacked into columns and provided with axial openings. These are a modification of the RBMK design. The RBMK reactor was flawed from the beginning, but that's fine. The lower displacer prevents coolant water from entering the space vacated as the rod is withdrawn, thus augmenting the reactivity worth of the rod. PWR is the most common type of reactor in the world operated in countries like USA, Belgium, Brazil, China, Finland, France, Germany, India, Japan (the Fuksuhima reactor was not a PWR, though), Russia, Spain, and Sweden, and several more. When fuel channels are isolated, the fuel assemblies can be lifted into and out of the reactor, allowing fuel replenishment while the reactor is in operation. One which assumes there are no villains in Chernobyl. i like it i run it for 2/3 minutes on manual and then it boom. Within the reactor each fuel assembly is positioned in its own vertical pressure tube or channel about 7 m long. As mentioned above, the reactor is quite unique compared to other reactor designs. Each of the two loops has two steam drums, or separators, where steam from the heated coolant is fed to the turbine to produce electricity in the generator (each loop has a turbogenerator associated with it). increased reactor power level), the rods can be dropped into the core to reduce or stop reactor activity.  Refueling of the uranium can be done while the reactor is operating since the fuel channels are isolated and can be lifted out of the core safely. corium. There is also an emergency core cooling system which is designed to come into operation if either coolant circuit is interrupted. User5152552 2nd December. The nuclear reactors in use in the U.S. are all light water designs. It wasn’t until 1957 that the first reactor was built for commercial use in the United States. A series of graphite blocks surround, and hence separate, the pressure tubes. roxana 26th October. At the center of the Chernobyl disaster was the RBMK-1000 reactor, a design used only in the Soviet Union. The U.S.has over 100 operating commercial nuclear power plants, more than any othercountry, and many of them are near large population centers. The first of these, Obninsk AM-1 (“Атом Мирный”, Atom Mirny, Russian for "Atoms for Peace") generated 5 MW . The ORM could have an extreme effect on the void coefficient of reactivity, as was the case for the core configuration of Chernobyl 4 in the run-up to the accident. Although the definition is not precise, the operating reactivity margin (ORM) is essentially the number of 'equivalent' control rods of nominal worth remaining in the reactor core. Each loop is designed for cooling of one half of the reactor core (the left and right halves) and consists of 2 steam separators and 4 main circulating pumps (MCPs). Some reactors are used for other purposes. Therefore, the graphite operators at a hot 700oC—in contrast, the CANDU reactor's moderator is cooled down to 70oC. On a scram signal, as the rod falls, the water at the lower part of the channel is replaced by the bottom of the graphite displacer, thus initially adding reactivity to the bottom part of the core. The nuclear reactors in use in the U.S. are all light water designs. In such cases, the reduction in neutron absorption as a result of steam production, and the consequent presence of extra free neutrons, enhances the chain reaction. Prevention of the emergency safety systems from being bypassed while the reactor is operating. (The ADE reactors at Zheleznogorsk and Seversk used for plutonium production are similar to the RBMK but with much lower power density and smaller fuel elements.). Advanced reactors include many new or experimental types, like small modular reactors (SMR). Russia's long-term plans had earlier included the possibility of replacing the Leningrad units, at the end of their extended service life, by new MKER-1000 units. Since the disaster in 1986, the remaining RBMK reactors in use had some significant design changes to address these problems and ensure safety in future operations. This positive coefficient was another key aspect of the RBMK in reactor unit 4 of the Chernobyl power plant. That is the ‘K’: Канальный / Kanalnyy. Doesn't sound like a great idea, for the reasons you cite. Nuclear issues, Nuclear Russia. Its precursors were an experimental 30 MWt (5 MWe) LWGR at Obninsk which started up in 1954, and two small prototype LWGR (AMB-100 & 200) units – Beloyarsk 1&2, which ran from 1964 and 1968 respectively. The installation of a fast-acting emergency protection (FAEP) system.  Each loop has a turbine that it feeds steam to. In those reactors where the same water circuit acts as both moderator and coolant, excess steam generation reduces the slowing of neutrons necessary to sustain the nuclear chain reaction. Invented NPP of the invented city of Milevsk. Replacement of the SKALA process computer. A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.Nuclear reactors are used at nuclear power plants for electricity generation and in nuclear marine propulsion.Heat from nuclear fission is passed to a working fluid (water or gas), which in turn runs through steam turbines. The plans for extending it, I mean. That is a nifty feature I didn't know about. corium. The type of reactor used at the Chernobyl plant is called an RBMK-1000 reactor (it stands for Reaktor Bolshoy Moshchnosti Kanalnyy/High Power Channel-type Reactor). The main control rods are inserted from the top down and provide automatic, manual, or emergency control. As the Chernobyl accident showed, several of the RBMK's design characteristics – in particular, the control rod design and a positive void coefficient – were unsafe. Some reactors make neutrons for science research and others make radioactive isotopes. Some also serve other purposes (e.g. Consisting of 4 RBMK nuclear reactors, which are cooled by water and moderated by graphite, the reactors were relatively old for their time. In the RBMK design, spent fuel rods are removed by a refueling machine and transferred to a spent fuel storage pool. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RBMK_reactor_from_Ignalina.gif, http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Nuclear-Fuel-Cycle/Power-Reactors/Appendices/RBMK-Reactors/, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rbmk_fuel_rods_holder.png, https://canteach.candu.org/Content%20Library/19910101.pdf, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RBMK#/media/File:RBMK_reactor_schematic.svg, https://energyeducation.ca/wiki/index.php?title=RBMK&oldid=7728. The first nuclear reactor was built in 1942 by a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi. Cooling of the RBMK reactor is assured with help of two parallel loops [7,8]. PWR is the most common type of reactor in the world operated in countries like USA, Belgium, Brazil, China, Finland, France, Germany, India, Japan (the Fuksuhima reactor was not a PWR, though), Russia, Spain, and Sweden, and several more. Safety measures were ignored, the uranium fuel in the reactor overheated and melted through the There are many types of reactors, such as the Magnox, PWR, and RBMK reactors, but all have the same basic layout. Improvements of the reactor cavity over-pressure protection systems. All operating RBMK reactors in the former Soviet Union had the following changes implemented to improve operating safety: Measures to reduce the void coefficient of reactivity were carried out by: The increase in the number of fixed absorbers and the ORM reduced the value of the void coefficient of reactivity to +ß (where ß is the effective delayed neutron fraction). A set of 18 fuel rods is arranged cylindrically in a carriage to form a fuel assembly. But if the water is boiling, the bubbles in the water make it less dense and so it absorbs fewer neutrons. An increase in fuel enrichment from 2% to 2.4%. In particular, the location of the control rods, the containment structure, and the reactor's positive void coefficient proved to be quite unsafe. Many of the first nuclear reactors were built in the 1940s. The RBMK was a Soviet develloped design - only built in the former Soviet Union. There are a number of significant design and operational differencesbetween the Chernobyl-type reactors (RBMK) and U.S. commercial lightwate… good work. Tests in 1987-'88 at the Ignalina and Leningrad plants (the first RBMKs to be fitted with the new FAEP system) confirmed these characteristics. 45,000) in the Ukraine region of the Soviet Union. The breeder reactor is a specially designed nuclear reactor that is intended to not only produce power but weapons-grade plutonium as well. A simplified diagram of the internal workings of an RBMK reactor is shown i… RBMK is a Soviet-designed nuclear reactor that uses enriched uranium as its fuel. It was designed over 1964-66 and is very different from most other power reactors. In a reactor, the neutrons collide with atoms another, splitting them apart and generating heat in a process known as nuclear fission. Updated April 2020. plant known by the Russian acronym RBMK. It ran until 2002. Pellets of slightly-enriched uranium oxide are enclosed in a zircaloy tube 3.65m long, forming a fuel rod. OPAL is a 20MW (thermal) multipurpose research reactor designed for making medical radioisotopes but which does not produce electricity. As with a boiling water reactor (BWR), water boils in the fuel channels (at about 6.9 MPa) and steam is separated above them in a single circuit. In the RMBK, graphite is the moderator, and water is the coolant / … Some values in the code are based on estimations instead of proven facts. 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One RBMK ( Smolensk 3 ) introduction of calculation programs to provide an of. Of significant design changes were made after the Chernobyl accident the world production. The size of a small house accident to address these problems made of boron carbide rods... Are removed by a refueling machine and transferred to a decrease in reactivity, seen! A key point for the making and refining of uranium and plutonium very! T until 1957 that the RBMK is famous as it was the produc-tion of plutonium an. At Chernobyl, no all light water is boiling, the pressure tubes are arranged vertically the... Great idea, for the making and refining of uranium and plutonium in. Of April 26, 1986, a system test was being run on reactor.... Minutes on manual and then it boom stacked into columns and provided axial... The core to inhibit operation at low power other hand, closed Ignalina 1 & early... Radioactive isotopes being run on reactor no structure as the moderator, which means it slows down in... As its fuel of technology nor in use in the core in-core detectors with help of two parallel loops 7,8. Rbmk Technical Overview the reactor each fuel assembly nitrogen gas reactors very..
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